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Introducing the fundamentals

The Arduino is also a little computer merely|that you just} simply can program to browse information from the world around you and to send commands to the ski world. All of this could be realizable as a result of you’ll connect several devices and elements to the Arduino to undertake and do what you would like. you’ll do marvelous comes with it, there’s no limit for what you’ll do, victimization your imagination everything is possible!


What is associate Arduino?

The Arduino is the board that you simply will see on the image below.

Basically, it’s a bit laptop computer merely|that you just} simply can connect with electrical circuits. This makes it simple to browse inputs – browse data from the surface – and management outputs – send a command to the surface. The brain of this board (Arduino Uno) is degree ATmega328p chip where you’ll store your programs that will tell your Arduino what to undertake and do.


Exploring the Arduino Uno board


In the figure below you’ll see associate Arduino board tagged. Let’s see what every half will.

  • Microcontroller: the ATmega328p is that the Arduino’s brain. Everything on the Arduino board is supposed to support this microcontroller.
  • Digital pins: Arduino has fourteen digital pins, labeled from zero to thirteen that may act as inputs or outputs.
  • When set as inputs, these pins will browse voltage. they’ll solely browse 2 totally different states HIGH or LOW.


  • When set as outputs, these pins will apply voltage. they’ll solely apply 5V (HIGH) or 0V (LOW).


  • PWM pins: These square measure digital pins marked with a ~ (pins eleven, 10, 9, 6, 5 and 3). PWM stands for “pulse dimension modulation” and permits to make digital pins output “fake” variable amounts of voltage. You’ll learn further regarding PWM later.
  • TX and RX pins: digital pins zero and one. The T stands for “transmit” and additionally the R for “receive”. Arduino uses these pins to talk with the laptop. Avoid victimization these pins, unless you’re running out of pins.
  • LED hooked up to digital pin 13: this can be helpful for a straightforward debugging of the Arduino sketches.
  • TX and RX pins: these pins blink once there’s data being sent between the pc and therefore the Arduino.
  • Analog pins: the analog pins square measure labeled from A0 to A5 and square measure most often accustomed browse analog sensors. they’re going to browse entirely totally different amounts of voltage between zero and 5V. additionally, they’re going to even be used as digital output/input pins a bit like the digital pins.
  • Power pins: The Arduino has 3.3V or 5V supply, that’s primarily useful since most parts want 3.3V or 5V. The pins labeled as “GND” square measure very cheap pins.
  • Reset button: after you press that button, the program that’s presently being run in your Arduino will begin from the beginning. you moreover may need a Reset pin next to the ability pins that act due to the button. when you apply a small low voltage to its pin, it’ll reset the Arduino.
  • Power ON LED: are going to be on since power is applied to the Arduino.

USB jack: Connecting a male USB A to male USB B cable is however you transfer programs from your laptop to your Arduino board. This additionally powers your Arduino.

Power jack: the ability jack is where you connect apart to power up your Arduino (recommended voltage is 5V). There ar some ways that to power up your Arduino: reversible batteries, disposable batteries, wall-warts, and solar battery, as associate degree example